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Bailey Sadler Class
SUNDAY SCHOOL LESSON STUDY GUIDE – 2015
Theme: Like Glue: Making
What This Study Is About:
Study Theme’s focus will help us connect to Christ because Christ took
it upon Himself to do what was needed to have a relationship with us.
He submitted to the will of the Father because of love.
He came to serve us because of love.
And He gave us what we needed to love others.
focus of this week’s study is on the kind of love that keeps our
relationships with others from growing stale.
Stick With Love
Stick With Encouragement
Stick With Forgiveness
Stick With Service
Stick With Humility
love permeate every relationship.
Love For Others Is To Be Grounded In God’s Love
For Others Is To Mirror Jesus’ Love For Us (John 15:11-12)
For Others Means Sacrifice (John 15:13-14)
OF BACKGROUND PASSAGE:
was short. Jesus and 11 of the apostles remained in the upper room. Jesus
had just observed the last supper and washed the feet of His closest
followers. Judas Iscariot had already departed to make whatever final
preparations remained for his betrayal of Jesus. All too soon the time to
depart for Gethsemane would arrive. Jesus rehearsed for the apostles the
most important matters, including the need to love others as He had loved
The Herschel Hobbs Commentary;
Family Bible Study; by
Robert J. Dean; LifeWay Christian Resources of the Southern Baptist
Convention; 1 LifeWay Plaza, Nashville, TN.
As Christians, we feel obligated to love,
because we know Christ first loved us, and we, in turn, are to love
others. Real love is expressed
through both attitudes and actions.
Jesus modeled this kind of love for us during
His time on earth. He showed
God’s love to everyone He encountered during His brief time here on
earth. Jesus not only modeled
this kind of love for us, He calls us to do the same.
He taught us how to maintain the type of love that does more than
just speak the words “I love you” but also is a continuous
demonstration of His love that reveals itself through our actions.
The Herschel Hobbs Commentary; Family Bible Study; by
Robert J. Dean; LifeWay Christian Resources of the Southern Baptist
Convention; 1 LifeWay Plaza, Nashville, TN.
For Others Is To Be Grounded In God’s Love (John 15:9-10)
9 “As the Father has loved Me, I have also
loved you. Remain in My love. 10 If
you keep My commands you will remain in My love, just as I have kept My
Father’s commands and remain in His love.
What does it mean to let love permeate every relationship?
would you explain God’s love for His Son (v. 9)?
is meant by “As the Father has loved
me?” (v. 9)?
is the source of the love that Jesus has for His disciples?
would you explain this to a non-believer?
do we remain in Jesus’ love?
does this imply on the part of the believer?
on this passage, what is the result of God’s love for Jesus?
what should result from Jesus’ love for us (v. 10)?
does keeping Jesus’ commands allow
us to remain in His love?
it possible to keep His commands and not remain in His love?
appeal did Jesus make in this passage?
do you think it means to keep your love for others grounded in God’s love?
Why do you think Jesus made it very clear that
we can find an immense reservoir of love in God?
How is a believer to do that?
the quality of our relationships with others always tied to the quality of our
relationship with God? Why, or why
would you define a quality
relationship with God?
so, how does a believer maintain a quality
relationship with God?
For Others Is To Mirror Jesus’ Love For Us (John 15:11-12)
11 “I have spoken these things to you so that
My joy may be in you and your joy may be complete. 12
This is My command: Love one another as I have
did Jesus mean by these things he
spoke to His disciples?
did He give His disciples these instructions?
would you describe Jesus’ joy (v. 11)?
would you summarize how a believer is to experience this same kind of joy?
you think we (believers) can experience the same type of joy Jesus experienced? Why,
or why not?
so, what do you think is required of the believer?
commandment did He issue in verse 12?
you this it is possible to love others
in the same manner as Jesus has loved us? Why,
or why not?
so, what do you think is required of the believer?
was the standard Jesus gave for His disciples to use in measuring their love for
difficult do you think it is for a believer to live up to this standard?
Lessons in John 15:11-12:
wants me to live a joyful life.
comes through loving God and loving others in the same manner as He loved
commands me to love others.
For Others Means Sacrifice (John 15:13-14)
13 No one has greater love
than this, that someone would lay down his life for his friends.
14 You are My friends if you
do what I command you.
to Jesus, what is the greatest expression of love?
do you think it means for a person to lay
down his life (v. 13)?
from death, what do you think it mean to lay
down one’s life?
would you explain this to a non-believer?
did Jesus mean by friends, when He
called us His friends (v. 13)?
do you think it means to friends with
verse 14 conditional? Why, or why
so, what are the conditions for the believer to be a friend
does a believer show that he/she is a friend of Jesus?
you had to choose one word to explain the kind of love Jesus is talking about here, what word would you chose?
you believe that you can really love others without sacrifice?
Why, or why not?
the greatest example of sacrificial love is presented in Jesus Christ, how does
that transfer to the Christian life?
Lessons in John 15:13-14:
His life for me.
I show love
when I give selflessly of myself to others.
Jesus’ friend if I obey His commands.
The command to love others is rooted in the Old Testament (Lev. 19:18).
Jesus declared it to be the second greatest commandment following
the command to love God (Matt. 22:37-40).
He called it a “new commandment” in John 13:34-35, with
“new” referring to the way love was to be expressed (“as I have
We tend to think of love in emotional terms.
Jesus expressed it as a command.
Hence, love must be more than a feeling.
“If this love were just a feeling, such a command would be
impossible to fulfill. But the
love Jesus refers to is an act based in a certain state of heart.”
It is an act defined in terms of laying down one’s life for
others. As Jesus’ followers,
this kind of love is to permeate all our relationships.
As the ultimate expression of love, Jesus gave His life for me.
So, as a follower of Jesus, for what am I laying down my life?
Is my life an expression of sacrificial love?
On a scale of 1 (very little) to 10 (completely), how would you
measure your life as an example of sacrificial love?
How pleasing do you think your rating is to God?
If you think it would not please Him, ask Him to help you employ
His Holy Spirit to guide you to improve your rating?
are the implications of these truths for your life?
THE CHOICE IS YOURS, ISN’T IT!
REMEMBER, the safest place for a believer is in the
center of God’s will.
Lesson Outline, Introduction,
Discussion Questions, and Conclusion adapted from the following sources:
Ventures-Bible Studies for Life; Leader Guide; LifeWay Christian Resources
of the Southern Baptist Convention; Nashville, TN.
Herschel Hobbs Commentary; Family Bible Study; by
Robert J. Dean; LifeWay Christian
Resources of the Southern Baptist Convention; 1 LifeWay Plaza, Nashville,
Bible Study; LifeWay Christian Resources of the Southern Baptist
Convention; One LifeWay Plaza, Nashville, TN.
Passage from three different translations of God’s Word:
King James Version: John 15:9-14:
As the Father hath loved me, so have I loved you: continue ye in my love. 10
If ye keep my commandments, ye shall abide in my love; even as I have kept
my Father’s commandments, and abide in his love. 11
These things have I spoken unto you, that my joy might remain in you, and that
your joy might be full. 12 This is my
commandment, That ye love one another, as I have loved you. 13
Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his
friends. 14 Ye are my friends, if ye do
whatsoever I command you.
Version: John 15:9-14:
9“As the Father has loved me, so have I loved
you. Now remain in my love. 10If you obey my commands, you will
remain in my love, just as I have obeyed my Father’s commands and remain in
his love. 11I have told you this so that my joy may be in you
and that your joy may be complete. 12My command is this: Love
each other as I have loved you. 13Greater love has no one than
this, that he lay down his life for his friends. 14You are my
friends if you do what I command. (NIV)
New Living Translation: John 15:9-14:
9“I have loved you even as the Father has
loved me. Remain in my love. 10When you obey my commandments,
you remain in my love, just as I obey my Father’s commandments and remain in
his love. 11I have told you these things so that you will be
filled with my joy. Yes, your joy will overflow! 12This is my
commandment: Love each other in the same way I have loved you. 13There
is no greater love than to lay down one’s life for one’s friends. 14You
are my friends if you do what I command. (NLT)
Outline — “Stick With Love” — John
Love For Others Is
To Be Grounded In God’s Love (John 15:9-10)
Love For Others Is To Mirror Jesus’ Love For
Us (John 15:11-12)
Love For Others Means Sacrifice (John 15:13-14)
Commentary for the focal passage comes from four sources: “The Expositor’s Bible Commentary Old Testament,” “Believer's Bible Commentary,” “The Complete Biblical Library Commentary,” and “The New American Commentary ,” and is provided for your study.)
The Expositor’s Bible Commentary New Testament; John
is the relationship that unites the disciples to Christ as branches are united
to a vine. Two results stem from this relationship: obedience and joy. Obedience
marks the cause of their fruitfulness; joy is its result. Jesus intended that
the disciples’ lives should be both spontaneous and happy rather than
burdensome and boring. Obedience in carrying out his purpose would be a
guarantee of success, for Jesus never planned failure for his disciples. Joy
logically follows when the disciples realize that the life of Christ in them is
bringing fruit—something they could never produce in their own strength.
b. The relation of the disciples to one another (15:12-17)
repeated his command to “love each other” (cf. 13:34) because he knew
that the future of the work among men depended on the disciples’ attitude
toward one another. His stress on love had been underscored earlier in this
discourse (14:15, 21, 23, 28). Unity instead of rivalry, trust
instead of suspicion, obedience instead of self-assertion must rule the
disciples’ common labors. The measure of their love for one another is that of
his love for them (cf. 13:34), which would be further demonstrated by his
forthcoming sacrifice. John caught the meaning of the statement and repeated it
in his First Epistle: “This is how we know what love is: Jesus Christ laid
down his life for us. And we ought to lay down our lives for our brothers” (1
Jesus defined friendship in terms of obedience. Christian friendship is more
than a casual acquaintance; it is a partnership of mutual esteem and affection
(14:21). Jesus elevated the disciples above mere tools and made them partners in
his work. A slave is never given a reason for the work assigned to him; he must
perform it because he has no other choice. The friend is a confidant who shares
the knowledge of his superior’s purpose and voluntarily adopts it as his own.
Jesus declared that he had revealed to the disciples all that the Father had
given to him. The disclosure of the mind of God concerning his career and theirs
would give them assurance that they were engaged in the right task and that God
would ultimately bring it to a successful conclusion.
SOURCE: The Expositor’s Bible Commentary New
Testament; Frank E. Gaebelein; General Editor;
Zondervan Publishing House; A Division of Harper Collins Publishers
Bible Commentary – John 15:9-14:
15:9. The love which the Savior has for us is the same
as the love of the Father for the Son. Our hearts are made to bow in
worship when we read such words. It is the same in quality and degree. It is
"a vast, wide, deep, unmeasurable love, that passeth knowledge, and can
never be fully comprehended by man." It is "a deep where all our
thoughts are drowned." "Abide in My love," said our Lord.
This means we should continue to realize His love and to enjoy it in our lives.
first part of verse 10 tells us how we can abide in His love; it is by keeping
His commandments. "There is no other way to be happy in Jesus, but
to trust and obey." The second half of the verse sets before us our Perfect
Example. The Lord Jesus kept His Father's commandments. Everything
He did was in obedience to the will of God. He remained in the constant
enjoyment of the Father's love. Nothing ever came in to mar that sweet
sense of loving fellowship.
15:11. Jesus found His own deep joy in communion
with God His Father. He wanted His disciples to have that joy that comes from
dependence upon Him. He wanted His joy to be theirs. Man's idea of
joy is to be as happy as he can by leaving God out of his life. The Lord taught
that real joy comes by taking God into one's life as much as possible. "That
your joy may be full," or "fulfilled." Their joy would be
fulfilled in abiding in Christ and in keeping His commandments. Many have used
John 15 to teach doubts concerning the security of the believer. They have used
the earlier verses to show that a sheep of Christ might eventually perish. But
the Lord's purpose was not "that your doubts may be full," but that
your joy may be full.
The Command to Love One Another (15:12-14)
15:12. The Lord would soon leave His disciples. They
would be left in a hostile world. As tensions increased, there would be the
danger of the disciples' contending with one another. And so the Lord leaves
this standing order, "Love one another, as I have loved you."
15:13. Their love should be of such a nature that they
should be willing to die for one another. People who are willing to do this do
not fight with each other. The greatest example of human self-sacrifice was for
a man to die for his friends. The disciples of Christ are called to this
type of devotion. Some lay down their lives in a literal sense; others spend
their whole lives in untiring service for the people of God. The Lord Jesus is
the Example. He laid down His life for His friends. Of course, they were enemies
when He died for them, but when they are saved, they become His friends. So it
is correct to say that He died for His friends as well as for His enemies.
15:14. We show that we are His friends by doing whatever
He commands us. This is not the way we become His friends, but rather the way we
exhibit it to the world.
Believer's Bible Commentary; by William
MacDonald; Copyright © 1995, 1992, 1990, 1989 by William McDonald.
Database © 2014 WORDsearch.
Complete Biblical Library Commentary: John
15:9. Jesus encouraged the disciples to love by holding
up the Father's love for Him as their example. The disciples had witnessed
Jesus' love for them; therefore, His love was more readily understood and hence
more easily followed.
"My" is emphasized because His love is the model for the
believer's love. The Father's love is absolutely perfect. To abide in His love
is to place the soul in His care, to continually allow His love to penetrate the
inner being, to rest under the constant sense of it, and to let the exercise of
His love flow through us to others (Romans 5:5,8).
15:10. The thought is if we want to sense His love, we
must keep His commandments. The Saviour's perfect obedience to the Father's will
reveals His sense of the Father's love. Love produces obedience. Likewise,
keeping the Lord's words fosters love. The degree of the disciple's love is
measured by his obedience to Jesus' teachings. Some may disassociate their
salvation from habitual obedience to His commandments, but Jesus connects them
inseparably. Holy living is the result of keeping Jesus' teachings. And keeping
His teachings reveals the disciple's love for His person. This is the essence of
abiding in Him and having His words abide in us (14:15,24).
15:11. Jesus here gives the conclusion to His teaching on
the allegory of the vine and the branches as it concerned their mutual
Christ experienced joy in the consciousness of His union with the Father,
and believers may experience this same joy that supported Him in His sufferings.
Jesus prayed for them to that end (17:13).
Jesus revealed that His joy came from keeping the Father's commandments
and abiding in His love. The fullness of the disciple's joy also comes as a
result of perfect obedience to His teachings and abiding in Him (verse 10).
15:12. In this verse Jesus stated one of His commandments.
Obedience to this commandment will produce joy in any disciple. Jesus called
this His commandment, for He gave it, demonstrated it, and taught how it works.
A few days before this He taught that all the Law and the Prophets could be
summed up by the two great commandments, "Love... God with all thy
heart" and "Love thy neighbor as thyself" (Matthew 22:37-40).
Love is the sum of both commandments. To love one's neighbor presupposes one's
love for God.
We love one another because we love Him. We love others because they bear
His likeness. Our love for each other cannot go to the extreme that His love did
in His redemptive work. But our love can be the same quality as His. We share
His love; therefore, we can be patient, kind, without envy, without arrogance,
rejoicing in goodness, forbearing, trusting, hopeful and Christlike (1
here stated the measure and degree of love He has for believers. It is also the
stimulus for the disciple's love. No love is greater.
This verse relates to the Good Shepherd teaching. The Good Shepherd gave
His life for the sheep (see 10:11,15,17). Here Jesus spoke not of sheep but of
His "friends." One may sacrifice much for the sake of a friend, but to
give one's life for a friend is rare indeed. Jesus surpassed one who might
rarely die for his friends—He died in behalf of and for His enemies. The Lord
mentioned only friends here because He was speaking to His friends. He knew in a
few hours His sufferings and crucifixion would occur.
is emphatic. Only those who keep Jesus' sayings are His friends. He was still
stressing what He taught in verses 10 and 14.
Complete Biblical Library Commentary – Acts. Database ©
2009 WORDsearch Corp.; World Library Press, Inc.
The New American Commentary; John 15:9-14:
15:9. In this
verse the focus turns again so that the theme of abiding merges into the crucial
Johannine theme of love. Here some of the elements of the circle of love are
enunciated. They are as follows: the Father loves the Son (cf. 3:35; 17:23), and
the Son obediently loves the Father (cf. 10:17; 14:31); the Son loves his
followers, and they are to love and obey him (cf. 13:34; 14:15, 23); loving and
obeying the Son means being loved by the Father (cf. 14:21, 23; 17:23); being
loved by the Son also implies loving one another (cf. 13:34; 15:12, 17); God not
only loves the disciples but loves the world and gave his Son for its people
(cf. 3:16); but many in the world love darkness and do not do the will of God
(cf. 3:19; 14:24). In his first epistle John carries the theme of love further
and insists that the disciple must not love in words only but in actual deeds of
love (cf. 1 John 3:18) and that hating one’s brother is actually an indication
of not loving God (cf. 3:15) because love is the sign of knowing God (cf. 4:7).
Bearing fruit therefore means loving others as God loves them and giving
witness to the world. Such
fruit bearing is possible only by abiding in Jesus, the Vine.
15:10. In 14:15
it was said that loving Jesus would result in obeying or keeping (tērēsete)
his commands (entolas, cf. 14:21; and “word,” logos, 14:23).
But in the present text the order is completely reversed. Accordingly, here
obeying/keeping his commands results in abiding in Jesus’ love. The only
natural conclusion from these virtually reversible statements, therefore, is
that they are so interrelated and inseparable that you cannot have one without
the other. Moreover, once again the relationship of the disciple to Jesus in
terms of obedience and love is modeled on the relationship of the Son to the
correctly categorizes this verse as simultaneously a recapitulation and a
climax. As this core mashal comes to its final stage, it focuses our attention
on a wonderful capstone promise of joy. Obedience, love, fruit bearing, being
pruned could all be viewed as rather painful and demanding ideas that scarcely
suggest excitement or desirability. But that is hardly the goal of the mashal.
The purpose of abiding in the vine is to provide the sense of delight to those
who are authentic disciples of Jesus, even though they may face pain or
The noun for joy (chara) has been used only once in the Gospel
prior to this verse, and that was in the Baptizer’s metaphor of the bridegroom
(3:29). But from this point forward in the Farewell Cycle it appears at 16:20,
21, 23, 24; 17:13. The verb chairein (“rejoice”), however, was used
four times prior to the Farewell Cycle: in the bridegroom text (3:29), the
harvest metaphor (4:36), the expectation of Abraham (8:56), and Jesus’
statement concerning Lazarus (11:15), all of which except the Lazarus text are
metaphors pointing to the meaning of the coming of Jesus. The verb appears twice
in the Farewell Cycle at 14:28 and 16:20. Besides this present verse, all the
uses of the noun and the verb concerning the theme of joy in the Farewell Cycle
are directly focused on Jesus’ departure from the world and his desire to
provide his beloved followers with a sense that they must not fear the future
but rejoice in what is being done through him. They must look beyond their
Accordingly, it could be legitimately concluded that one of the major
purposes of the Farewell Cycle and particularly of this core mashal is to
help Christian readers glimpse the perspective of God concerning the
death/departure of Jesus and thus to view their own pain in light of the divine
perspective. Such a perspective will not produce a superficial, fairy tale-like
“happily-ever-after” attitude but a deep sense of well-being and joy that
their lives are united in the vine of Jesus and thus in his self-giving death
and powerful resurrection (cf. the disciples’ reaction of joy at the
resurrection in 20:20).
Friends of Jesus and the Love Command: Thesis Statements on Discipleship
“commands” required by Jesus for abiding in his love (15:10) are in v. 12
encapsulated in one core command or order.
That command is a restatement of the new command
that was presented in 13:34–35 as the mark of authentic Christian
discipleship. And here again it is founded on the previous exemplary love of
Jesus for them. The verbs for love are significant here in that the love of the
disciples is in the Greek a present continuing tense whereas the love of Jesus
is stated in the aorist or past tense. It is obvious that John has the crucial
event of the death and resurrection of the Lord in mind as he states this major
discipleship thesis from a postresurrection perspective.
These verses immediately call to mind the double command discussed in the
Synoptic Gospels wherein the summary of the law is stated in terms of loving God
and loving one’s neighbor (cf. Mark 12:29–31). The dialog of Jesus with the
rich young man who wondered how true obedience could be summarized (Matt
19:16–30; Mark 10:17–22; Luke 18:18–30) begins with a discussion
concerning the second register of the Decalogue. But Jesus moved the discussion
quickly to the first register and the subject of Israel’s daily affirmation of
the Shema (Deut 6:4–5). Here the pattern of thinking is reversed, for
the mashal began with a major focus on a relationship to Jesus, the Vine,
and moved to obedience, which in this section is focused on love for others (cf.
also Matt 5:44–45).
But Brown correctly reminds us that in our lives we have come to know
real love because Jesus laid down his life for us (cf. 1 John 3:16). As a result we are to follow his
example. Judaism, however, generally has rejected such self-sacrifice as an unnecessary and inappropriate
pattern for life. Moreover, in
commenting on the subject of friendship, Stählin, after reviewing the writings
of the Greek philosophers, argues that John has clothed ancient ideas concerning
true “friendship in biblical speech”and applied them to Jesus in the
giving of a model for the disciples. Whatever may be any literary antecedents
for such self-giving in terms of friendship, however, it is clear that
self-sacrifice as understood by John did not arise from a philosophical ideal but from the actual
self-giving death of Jesus. Such a death is the ultimate measure of love, and
thus Jesus indicated that no other love surpasses such love (meizona tautēs
Although some might argue that such love for friends is not the ultimate
love in comparison to love of enemies, the thesis here
concerns the basis for discipleship in its reference to the death of Jesus. It
would be illegitimate in such a context to argue that either John or Jesus would
be making a case that the sacrificial death of Jesus was for friends and not
for the world (cf. John 3:16; cf. also the Sermon on the Mount at Matt
5:43–45, where Jesus completely rejected such an improper interpretation of
Lev 19:17–18). Indeed, Paul in Romans (Rom 5:10) argued that Christ died to
reconcile us while we were still enemies.
introduced in the previous verse the subject of genuine friendship by means of
an articular participle (tōn philōn), lit. “the ones he
loved”), John now employs the noun philoi to spell out the implications
or basic requirements of such friendship. They are exactly the same obedience
requirements as those (15:10) for abiding in his love (agapē). It is
therefore imperative to avoid making the frequent mistake of highlighting
differences between agapan and philein in John.
The point of the verse is that obedience to the commands of Jesus defines
what it means to be his friends. The concept of
being a friend of God is applied in the Old Testament to Abraham (2 Chr 20:7; Isa 41:8; cf.
Jas 2:23) and implicitly to Moses (Exod 33:11). Likewise, Jesus can refer to
Lazarus as “our friend Lazarus” (John 11:11). But neither in the Old
Testament nor the New Testament is God or Jesus referred to as the friend of
humans in the manner of the Gospel song “What a Friend We Have in Jesus.”
Such a thought probably would be regarded by the biblical writers as too
debasing of God or Jesus. The biblical
writers like John already understood that Jesus was not a mortal to be
treated as any other mere human. The evangelist was not in danger of confusing
Jesus, who is the Vine, with a mere branch (cf. 15:5 and the comments there on
identity). Clarity on this issue goes to the very heart of discipleship.
New American Commentary; Volume 25b; John
12–21; Gerald L. Borchert; E. Ray Clendenen, General Editor: © Copyright 1991; Broadman
Press; Nashville, Tennessee.
LOVE Unselfish, loyal, and benevolent concern for the
well-being of another. In 1 Corinthians 13, Paul described “love”
as a “more excellent way” than tongues or even preaching. The New
Testament maintains this estimation of love throughout. The King James Version
uses the word charity instead of “love” to translate the Greek
word Paul used (agape). The word charity comes from the Latin caritas
which means “dearness,” “affection,” or “high regard.” Today, the
word charity is normally used for acts of benevolence, and so the
word love is to be preferred as a translation of agape.
Nevertheless, the reader who comes to the agape of the New
Testament with the idea of benevolence in mind is better off than the reader who
comes with the idea of physical pleasure and satisfaction.
SOURCE: Holman Bible Dictionary;
General Editor, David S. Dockery; Holman Bible Publishers; Nashville, Tennessee.
Agape ag´a-pē (ἀγάπη, agápē).
1. The Name and the Thing: The
name Agape or “love-feast,” as an expression denoting the brotherly common
meals of the early church, though of constant use and in the post-canonical
literature from the time of Ignatius onward, is found in the New Testament only
in Jude 1:12 and in 2 Pet 2:13 according to a very doubtful reading.
For the existence of the Christian common meal, however, we have abundant New
Testament evidence. The “breaking of bread” practiced by the primitive
community in Jerusalem according to Acts 2:42, 46 must certainly be
interpreted in the light of Pauline usage (1 Cor 10:16; 11:24) as referring
to the ceremonial act of the Lord’s Supper. But the added clause in 2:46,
“they took there food with gladness and singleness of heart,” implies that a
social meal was connected in some way with this ceremonial act. Paul’s
references to the abuses that had sprung up in the Corinthian church at the
meetings for the observance of the Lord’s Supper (1 Cor 11:20-22, 33, 34)
make it evident that in Corinth as in Jerusalem the celebration of the rite was
associated with participation in a meal of a more general character. And in one
of the “we” sections of Acts (20:11) where Luke is giving personal testimony
as to the manner in which the Lord’s Supper was observed by Paul in a church
of his own founding, we find the breaking of bread associated with and yet
distinguished from an eating of food, in a manner which makes it natural to
conclude that in Troas, as in Jerusalem and Corinth, Christians when they met
together on the first day of the week were accustomed to partake of a common
meal. The fact that the name Agape or love-feast used in Jude 1:12 (Revised
Version) is found early in the 2nd century and often afterward as a technical
expression for the religious common meals of the church puts the meaning of
Jude’s reference beyond doubt.
2. Origin of the Agape: So far as the Jerusalem
community was concerned, the common meal appears to have sprung out of the koinōnı́a or communion that characterized the first days of
the Christian church (compare Acts 1:14; 2:1 etc.). The religious
meals familiar to Jews—the Passover being the great type—would make it
natural In Jerusalem to give expression by means of table fellowship to the
sense of brotherhood, and the community of goods practiced by the infant church
(Acts 2:44; 4:32) would readily take the particular form of a common table
at which the wants of the poor were supplied out of the abundance of the rich
(Acts 6:1ff). The presence of the Agape in
the Greek church of Corinth was no doubt due to the initiative of Paul, who
would hand on the observances associated with the Lord’s Supper just as he had
received them from the earlier disciples; but participation in a social meal
would commend itself very easily to men familiar with the common meals that
formed a regular part of the procedure at meetings of those religious clubs and
associations which were so numerous at that time throughout the Greek-Roman
3. Relation to the Eucharist: In
the opinion of the great majority of scholars the Agape was a meal at which not
only bread and wine but all kinds of viands were used, a meal which had the
double purpose of satisfying hunger and thirst and giving expression to the
sense of Christian brotherhood. At the end of this feast, bread and wine were
taken according to the Lord’s command, and after thanksgiving to God were
eaten and drunk in remembrance of Christ and as a special means of communion
with the Lord Himself and through Him with one another. The Agape was thus
related to the Eucharist as Christ’s last Passover to the Christian rite which
He grafted upon it. It preceded and led up to the Eucharist, and was quite
distinct from it. In opposition to this view it has been strongly urged by some
modern critical scholars that in the apostolic age the Lord’s Supper was not
distinguished from the Agape, but that the Agape itself from beginning to end
was the Lord’s Supper which was held in memory of Jesus. It seems fatal to
such an idea, however, that while Paul makes it quite evident that bread and
wine were the only elements of the memorial rite instituted by Jesus (1 Cor
11:23-29), the abuses which had come to prevail at the social gatherings of the
Corinthian church would have been impossible in the case of a meal consisting
only of bread and wine (compare 1 Cor 11:21, 33f) Moreover, unless the
Eucharist in the apostolic age had been discriminated from the common meal, it
would be difficult to explain how at a later period the two could be found
diverging from each other so completely.
4. Separation from the Eucharist:
In the Didache (circa
100 ad) there is no sign as yet of any separation. The direction that the second
Eucharistic prayer should be offered “after being filled” (x.1) appears to
imply that a regular meal had immediately preceded the observance of the
sacrament. In the Ignatian Epistles (circa 110 ad) the Lord’s Supper and the
Agape are still found in combination (Ad Smyrn viii.2). It has sometimes
been assumed that Pliny’s letter to Trajan (circa 112 ad) proves that the
separation had already taken place, for he speaks of two meetings of the
Christians in Bithynia, one before the dawn at which they bound themselves by a
“sacramentum” or oath to do no kind of crime, and another at a later hour
when they partook of food of an ordinary and harmless character (Ep
x.96). But as the word “sacramentum” cannot be taken here as necessarily or
even probably referring to the Lord’s Supper, the evidence of this passage is
of little weight. When we come to Justin Martyr (circa 150 ad) we find that in
his account of church worship he does not mention the Agape at all, but speaks
of the Eucharist as following a service which consisted of the reading of
Scripture, prayers and exhortation (Apol, lxvii); so that by his time the
separation must have taken place. Tertullian (circa 200 ad) testifies to the
continued existence of the Agape (Apol, 39), but shows clearly that in
the church of the West the Eucharist was no longer associated with it (De
Corona, 3). In the East the connection appears to have been longer
maintained (see Bigg, Christian Platonists of Alexandria, 102ff),
but by and by the severance became universal; and though the Agape continued for
long to maintain itself as a social function of the church, it gradually passed
out of existence or was preserved only as a feast of charity for the poor.
5. Reasons for the Separation:
Various influences appear to have cooperated in this direction.
Trajan’s enforcement of the old law against clubs may have had something to do
with it (compare Pliny as above), but a stronger influence probably came from
the rise of a popular suspicion that the evening meals of the church were scenes
of licentious revelry and even of crime. The actual abuses which already meet us
in the apostolic age (1 Cor 11:20ff; Jude 1:12), and which would tend to
multiply as the church grew in numbers and came into closer contact with the
heathen world, might suggest the advisability of separating the two observances.
But the strongest influence of all would come from the growth of the ceremonial
and sacerdotal spirit by which Christ’s simple institution was slowly turned
into a mysterious priestly sacrifice. To Christ Himself it had seemed natural
and fitting to institute the Supper at the close of a social meal. But when this
memorial Supper had been transformed into a repetition of the sacrifice of
Calvary by the action of the ministering priest, the ascetic idea became natural
that the Eucharist ought to be received fasting, and that it would be
sacrilegious to link it on to the observances of an ordinary social meal.
SOURCE: International Standard Bible Encyclopedia; James Orr, M.A., D. D.,
General Editor; Parsons Technology, Inc.; Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
Love In John’s Writings
By Robert E. Jones
E. Jones is pastor of Euclid Avenue Baptist Church, Bristol, Virginia.
DENTIFYING KEY THEMES IN JOHN’S WRITINGS1
is relatively easy because the apostle used certain key words repeatedly.
New Testament scholars have identified at least 10 prominent themes in
John’s writings. One of these is
love, a theme the apostle defined primarily through two Greek words: the verb agapao
and the noun agape.
The verb agapao occurs
throughout ancient Greek literature; the noun agape appears primarily, however, in biblical literature.
The term is in every New Testament book except Mark, Acts, and James.
Of the 116 uses of agape in the
New Testament, 30 occur in John’s writings.
Additionally, more than half of all the New Testament occurrences of the
verb agapao (143 times) appear in
John’s writings (72 times).2 By
his prominent use of these two words for love, the apostle set out to describe
his unique understanding of the nature of God’s love and the importance of
Christ’s followers to practice love. The
late New Testament scholar Leon Morris aptly defined the importance of John
placed upon love: “Clearly love matters a good deal to this author.”3
John’s direct and powerful affirmation “God
is love” (1 John 4:8) forms the foundation for everything else the apostle had
to say about love. For John, love
was an attribute that helped define God’s essential nature.
Because God is love, He expressed that love in tangible ways.
Two of these expressions are prominent in John’s writings.
First, God has expressed His love by sending His only begotten Son into
the world for the purpose of offering salvation to every person (John 3:16).
In John’s understanding, the Lord loves all people simply because love
is the heart of His character. God’s
love for people is based on His own nature, not on people’s worthiness.
In fact, God loves all people in spite of our unworthiness, which is the
basic idea of agape love.
Consequently, God’s love for people finds its highest expression in
the gift of His Son; more specifically, Jesus’ death on the cross.
John declared that love consists of this major truth—that the Father
demonstrated His love for the world by sending His Son to be the perfect
sacrifice for every person’s sins (1 John 4:10).
Indeed, the reason why anyone has come to know love is because Christ
laid down His life for us all (3:16). We
can thus love because God first loved us (4:19) with a love so great that the
end goal of that love is making us God’s children through faith in Jesus
Christ (3:1). In this sense, then,
the Son mediated God’s love by bringing this heavenly reality into the world.
Second, John did not focus exclusively on God’s love for the world;
the apostle also declared that God loves His Son (John 3:35).
While the Father’s love for His Son existed before the world’s
foundation, the manifestation of this love to the world came through the Son’s
obedient death on the cross and His subsequent glorification (10:17; 17:24).
Interestingly, John declared the Son’s love for the Father only once
(14:31). Instead, the apostle
emphasized the Son’s love for those the Father had given to Him (15:9).
Emphatically, John declared that Jesus had loved His own all the way to
the end of His earthly ministry (13:1). Jesus
wanted His followers to abide in His love for them (15:9-10), while
understanding also that His love for the disciples was an extension of the
Father’s love for them (17:23).
A unique emphasis John placed on love was the commandment
to love. John expressed this
truth through Christ’s powerful declaration to His disciples to love one
another in a manner similar to His love for them (13:34).
This “new commandment” was new primarily because of the distinctive
emphasis Jesus placed on it. The
phrase “as I have loved you” provided both the norm for this love and the
reason for it. The context for
Jesus’ command was His statement to the disciples that He was about to leave
them (v. 33). Therefore, Jesus
called on His followers to do to one another after His departure that which He
had done to them while He was with them. Furthermore,
this new commandment took on a level of prominence over the other commandments
through Jesus’ startling declaration that all people would know that the
disciples were His true followers as they observed believers practicing this
brotherly love (v. 35). Consequently,
the command to love one another is more than just a moral demand, for it
expresses a call for action that forms an essential part of the Christian
This emphasis on brotherly love carries over into the Book of 1 John,
where the apostle linked it closely with Christian fellowship.
John saw Christians as bound to God and to one another.
For example, John declared that Christians have fellowship with one
another when they walk in the light (1 John 1:7).
So, the believer who walks in the light will also love his brother
(2:9-11). For John this was the
proof that a person had passed from darkness into the light.
As a result, God’s children love one another because love had become
part of their character (3:14). Christ’s
followers project the genuineness of their new birth salvation by practicing
brotherly love (4:7). In contrast,
those who do not love their brothers give indication they do not know God in
saving faith (v. 8). Furthermore,
practicing brotherly love among Christ’s disciples demonstrates that God’s
love has been perfected, or matured, in His children (v. 12).
Nevertheless, John saw the necessity to urge His readers to love one
another (3:11,18), and to do so according to Jesus’ commandment (v. 23).
John reminded his readers that the command to brotherly love was not
new in the sense that they had heard it “from the beginning” (v. 11),
probably meaning from the beginning of their Christians experience.
But in another sense, brotherly love was the beginning point for their
expression of Christ-like love. If a
person could not love his brother, one he could see with his own eyes, he
certainly could not love God, the One he could not see (4:20).
In fact, John pointedly said a person is a liar if he says he loves God
but hates his brother (v. 20).
John’s emphasis on brotherly love constitutes a revolutionary new
understanding of love Christians are to manifest in the world.
Through God’s love, and in spite of our unworthiness, believers in
Christ express love to one another because Christ has transformed us and made us
loving people. In brotherly love,
then, the followers of Christ reflect a fellowship that is not of this world.
This is the law of love, and it is possible only because God first loved
us (v. 19).
For the purposes of this article, John’s writings include the Gospel of
John, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, and Revelation.
Andreas Kostenberger and Raymond Bouchoch, The Book Study Concordance of the Greek New Testament
(Nashville: Broadman and Holman, 2003).
Leon Morris, The Gospel According
to John, rev. ed. (Grand Rapids:
Eerdmans, 1995), 203.
By Kendall H. Easley
Easley is professor of New Testament and Greek, Mid-America Baptist Theological
Seminary, Germantown, Tennessee.
WE FIND PAUL’S LETTER to the Philippians to be the most joy-filled book
of the New Testament. Every chapter
refers to joy or rejoicing. What did
Paul’s starting point for understanding joy was the Old Testament.
Several Hebrew words are translated into English Bibles by such terms as
“joy,” “enjoy,” and “rejoice.” Joy
was for the people of ancient Israel, just as it is for us, an emotion, which by
its nature sought expression. The
subjective feeling of joy with no outward manifestation was unknown.
A good example is the first biblical mention of any sort of joy.
As Jacob fled from Laban, his father-in-law, Laban, finally asked, “Why
did you run off secretly and deceive me? Why
didn’t you tell me, so I could send you away with joy and singing to the music
of tambourines and harps?” (Gen. 31:27).1
Hebrew Scripture shows rejoicing as the active
response of the covenant community to God’s blessings.
In fact, the Israelites were commanded to assemble for joyful
contains several examples, such as: “There, in the presence of the Lord your
God, you and your families shall eat and shall rejoice in everything you have
put your hand to, because the Lord your God has blessed you” (12:7).
If we were suddenly transported back to ancient Israel, we would find
great joy in everyday life.
The Book of Psalms overflows with joy.
The psalms exhort God’s people to rejoice, especially because of His
salvation. Consider Psalm 64:10:
“Let the righteous rejoice in the Lord and take refuge in him; let all the
upright in heart praise him.” For
centuries Christians have used such psalms of rejoicing to help express their
own joy in God.
The biblical prophets looked forward to a time of great joy after the
restoration of all things. God
Himself shares in this joy: “But be glad and rejoice forever in what I will
create, for I will create Jerusalem to be a delight and its people a joy.
I will rejoice over Jerusalem and take delight in my people” (Isa.
65:18-19). Such expressions are
remarkably similar to the joyful hope for heaven that we Christians express.
Joy In The New Testament
In the New Testament we discover three Greek word groups associated with
joy. The agalliao words
emphasize loud, public expressions of joy in worship.
The euphraino words
focus on times of community joy in festival or banquet settings.
The chairo words, the focus of this study, are by far the most
frequent. Both the activity of
rejoicing and the things that cause joy can be called joy in this sense.
In the New Testament, joy centers on Jesus Christ.
Paul’s friend Luke stressed the joy that the birth and life of Jesus
brought. As Christ’s life on earth
began, the angels announced to the shepherds: “I bring you good news of great
joy that will be for all people. Today
in the town of David a Savior has been born to you; he is Christ the Lord”
(Luke 2:10-11). Then at the close of
Jesus’ earthly life, after His ascension to heaven, the disciples “worshiped
him and returned to Jerusalem with great joy” (24:52).
When Paul planted the church in Philippi, joy erupted.
God opened Lydia’s heart to the gospel; a slave girl was set free from
an evil spirit; the town jailer was dramatically converted to Christ after a
midnight earthquake (Acts 16:13-40). After
the jailer’s family was baptized, “he was filled with joy because he had
come to believe in God – he and his whole family” (v. 34).
More than 10 years passed between the time Paul preached the good news in
Philippi (about A.D. 50) and the time he wrote the Epistle to the Philippians
(about AD 61). Many more in their
city had received the gospel. When
Paul wrote Philippians, he was being help captive in Rome, but his circumstances
did not rob him of joy. He was a
joyful Christian busily serving God through the ministry of praying, writing
letters, and preaching to those within his hearing.
Within only 104 verses, Paul used joy or a derivative 16 times.
He used the noun chara (joy) 5 times (1:4,25; 2:2,29; 4:1),
of a total of the 59 New Testament instances.
Paul used the related verb chairo (rejoice) 9 times in
Philippians (1:18 [twice]; 2:17,18,28; 3:1; 4:4 [twice],10), of a total of the
75 New Testament occurrences. In
Philippians 2:17-18, Paul twice used the compound verb sugchairo, meaning
rejoice with or co-rejoice, of a total of the 7 New Testament
The Noun Joy In Philippians
Paul’s use of “joy” (chara) in Philippians corresponds well
with the other uses of the word in Scripture.
Joy was never simply an inner feeling for Paul but something he
In Philippians 1:4, Paul showed joy in the way he prayed for his friends:
“In all my prayers for all of you, I always pray with joy.”
If Paul could pray with joy from prison, we too can be encouraged to pray
In Philippians 1:25, Paul expressed confidence that he would be restored
to the Philippian believers “for [their] progress and joy in the faith.”
Believers experience a greater degree of joy when other Christians
minister to them, perhaps through the Word or through deeds.
Philippians 2:29 is similar. Here
Paul asked the church to welcome the return of their friend Epaphroditus “in
the Lord with great joy.”
Joy is a subjective individual emotion that cam be enhanced or made
complete – the theme of Philippians 2:2. Paul
said that when believers were “like-minded, having the same love, being one in
spirit and purpose” his joy was made complete.
Paul’s final use of the noun “joy” is in Philippians 4:1.
Here he used “joy” with the meaning that which causes joy
(rather than joy as an emotion). The
believers themselves were Paul’s “joy and crown.”
Paul used the verb “rejoice” in Philippians in
two ways. First, he spoke of his
personal rejoicing in three verses (four instances).
In Philippians 1:18, Paul stated twice that the preaching of the gospel
by anyone (even with ulterior motives) caused him to rejoice, both in the
present and in the future. Thus
whenever we hear that the true gospel has been proclaimed, rejoicing is in
Philippians 2:17 recorded Paul’s joy even as he contemplated his death.
He knew his death would bring him closer to displaying the fruit of his
ministry on “the day of Christ” (v. 16).
In this same setting he used the verb sugchairo to say that “I .
. . rejoice with all of you” (v. 17). Joy
for Paul wasn’t private by shared.
Paul’s final reference to his personal joy is
Philippians 4:10. Because of the
Philippians’ generous gift, Paul wrote, “I rejoice greatly in the Lord.”
When someone enriches our lives – spiritually, financially, or in other
ways – we believers ought to rejoice aloud.
The Philippian Christians’ Rejoicing
Second, in four verses Paul used the verb chairo with reference to the
rejoicing of the Philippians. Most
are imperatives (commands) rather than indicatives (statements of fact).
In Philippians 2:18, Paul asked the Philippians to rejoice (chairo)
in light of his coming death (see the reference to 2:17 above).
He made sure this was a matter of co-rejoicing (sugchairo) with
others: “So you too should be glad and rejoice with me.”
In 2:28, Paul alluded to the Philippian believers’
future rejoicing at their reunion with their dear friend Epaphroditus.
This rejoicing closely connects to the usage of the noun “joy” in
2:29, reminding us of the earlier point that joy is a result of Christian
In Philippians 3:1 and 4:4, three times Paul used the present imperative
form of the verb to charge the Philippians to keep on rejoicing.
In both verses, such rejoicing is “in the Lord.”
Perhaps we find it strange to think of joy as something that is commanded
to believers, but the Hebrew Scriptures established this pattern.
This becomes possible when we realize that joy “in the Lord” is
because of His greatness and goodness and not because of our circumstances.
What does joy mean in Philippians? It
is about people, not things; God’s gospel, not circumstances.
Joy comes when the gospel is preached and when Christians minister
effectively. Joy comes in praying
and because of generous giving. Joy
“in the Lord” is the fruit of the Spirit (Gal. 5:22) that all Christians are
to express and share with each other, just as Paul did.
Scripture quotations in this article are taken from the New International
Jones is professor of New Testament, Wayland Baptist University, Anchorage,
USE OF THE WORD “ABIDE”
is extensive. Of the 112 passages in
which the Greek word meno (abide) occurs in the New Testament, 66 are found in
John’s writings. John used meno 26
times in his letters alone, with 23 of these instances occurring in 1 John.1
Clearly, John’s extensive use of “abide” indicates the term carries
a unique importance in his writings.
basic meaning of meno is to remain or stay.2
The concept of remaining or abiding, however, can take different forms.
Ancient Greek literature reflects at least three uses of meno: standing
against opposition, remaining still, and remaining in legal force.3
Likewise, we find meno used with different emphases in the New Testament.
the literal sense meno refers to one living or remaining in a physical dwelling
such as a house (Luke 19:5) or a ship (Acts 27:31).
Often, however, meno is used in a figurative sense such as abiding in
faith and love (1 Tim. 2:15) or in Christ’s Word (John 8:31). This
metaphorical use is the way John used “abide” in his letters.
we can categorize the biblical use of a particular word, and this is the case
with “abide.” In John’s
letters “abide” is used with believers as both the subject and the object of
the verb. The apostle described us
as believers abiding in Christ, in the light, in love, and in eternal life.
In contrast, John identified God, God’s Word, truth, and the anointing
as abiding in us. These categories
provide a framework for examining each use of the term in 1 and 1 John.
1 John 2:6 the apostle laid down a clear expectation for those who abide in
Christ: We are “to walk in the
same manner as He walked.”4 Christians
should model their lives after Jesus because they abide in Christ.5
Then in 2:28 John indicated that abiding in Christ will bring confidence
as we reflect on Jesus’ second coming. Having
a personal relationship with Jesus now dispels any fear of His return later, for
then we will move only into a deeper relationship with Christ.
In addition, this personal relationship with Christ eliminates the desire
to continue in sin (3:6). The linear
use of abide in this verse shows that a life of continuous sin gives evidence
that Christ does not exist. On the
other hand, we know that we are abiding in Christ and He in us because Christ
has given us His Spirit (3:24). The
Spirit then enables us to keep the Lord’s commandments, a sign we love Jesus
(John 14:15). The apostle repeated
this thought in 1 John 4:13, declaring that the Holy Spirit gives us confidence
that we do, indeed, abide in Christ.
addition, we abide in the light (2:10). When
the living Word of God came into the world, He shines His light on every person,
and the darkness of sin that gripped the world could not overcome it (John
1:4-9). Darkness and hate abide
together, but so do light and love. When
we abide in the light, therefore, we love our brothers.
John put this truth another way in 1 John 4:16: To abide in God is to
abide in love because God is love. God’s
love produces love in us proving that we abide in His love.
When this is not the case, we abide in death and do not possess eternal
life (3:14-15). The belief that we
can hate and abide in God at the same time is, therefore, untenable.
each of these above occurrences, we are the subject of “abide.”
However, John also used the word with us as the object of the verse.
The most prominent use focuses on “the word of God.”
In 2:14 John stated that he wrote to the young men because the word of
God abided in them. Because God’s
word was abiding in them, they possessed power to overcome “the evil one.”
John extended this thought in 3:9 include power to resist sin.
No one born of God continually practices sin because God’s seed abides
in him. “Seed” probably refers
to God’s word that Peter identified as “the living and abiding word of
God” that produces new birth in us (1 Pet. 1:23, RSV).
in 1 John 2:24 John pleaded with us to let God’s Word abide in us.
“That. . . which you heard from the beginning” refers to the message
of the gospel as originally preached to them,6
another way of referring to God’s Word.
By abiding in the teachings of Christ received from the beginning, we
give evidence of abiding in the Father and the Son (2 John 9).
only do we abide in God, but God also abides in us (1 John 4:12).
Here John used a third-class conditional clause indicating future
probability.7 “If we
love one another,” and we probably will, then God abides in us.”
A second evidence that God abides in us relates to personal confession.
Anyone who :confesses that Jesus is the Son of God” has God abiding in
confession of Jesus as God’s Son is at the heart of 2 John 2 where the apostle
wrote, “For the sake of the truth which abides in us.”
This truth is the reality that Jesus is God’s Son who came in the
set this truth against those deceivers who deny the reality of the incarnation.
John addressed the anointing each believer has abiding in him (1 John 2:27).
This anointing probably refers to the Holy Spirit who Jesus said would
teach us all things (John 14:26).
examined the different uses of abide, we must now ask, What does all this mean?
Why did John use “abide” so often and in so many different ways?
Is there one common, salient truth running through-out each of the 26
times John used “abide” in his letters? I think so.
verse that seems to reflect a prominent thought underlying all the occurrences
of “abide” in John’s Letters is 1 John 2:17.
the verse tells us “the world is passing away, and also its lusts (NASB).
In the New Testament, “world” often refers to that part of humanity
belonging to the realm of darkness or alienated from God.
This sphere, and all the evil associated with it, is in the process of
passing away; it is transient. However,
the one “who does the will of God abides forever” (RSV).
Only by doing God’s will can a person abide eternally,.
In John 6:40 Jesus said the will of the Father is that we believe in the
Son and have eternal life. Peter
echoes this truth when he said the Lord’s will was for no one to perish but
for everyone to repent (2 Pet. 3:9).
the underlying emphasis of “abide” in John’s Letters relates to salvation.
God is immanent. He abides
exactly as He always has, eternal and unchanging.
Only a person abides in God through Jesus Christ can he also abide
forever. However, when John used the
word “abide,” he surely was picturing salvation as a permanent and present
possession for those who by faith
have entered into a personal and saving relationship with Jesus Christ.
1. Bauer, Arndt, and Gingrich, A Greek English
Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago:
The University of Chicago Press,
2. Ibid, 504.
3. Hauck, in
Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, trans. Geoffrey W. Bromiley
(Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1967), 4:574.
4. All translations are from the New American
Standard Bible 1955 update.
5. Edward A. McDowell, “1-2-3 John,” in The
Broadman Bible Commentary (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1972), 12:200.
6. Ibid, 205.
7. See Ray Summers, Essentials of New Testament
Greek (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1950), 108-9.
8. McDowell, 202.
Illustrator, LifeWay Christian Resources of the Southern Baptist Convention;
Nashville, TN, 37234, Winter 1999-2000.
Is The Answer To & Where In The Bible Is This Week’s Trivia Question
Found? (04/26/15) Two-part
question: (1) Who was Jerub-Baal and
(2) how many sons did he have? Answer
Next Week? Two-part question: (1) Who; (2) How many sons?
The answer to last
week’s trivia question: (04/19/15) Two-part
Question: Which two of the eight signs, or miracles, recorded in John are also
recorded in other gospel records? Answer:
(1) Feeding of the 5000; John 6:1-14; and (2) Jesus walking on water;